1.3.1 Fear of victim
An important criterion to define violence is the victim’s fear: aggressive acts can also be defined as violent if the victim feels fear and thus tries to change their behaviour to avoid further aggression. Fear is not an ‘objective’ measure, meaning a certain aggressive behaviour might cause fear in one person but not in another one. The same act can be experienced in different ways, due to individual life histories and social orders (e.g. hate crimes against members of social marginalized group).
In addition to avoidance behaviour, indicators of fear might be:
Loss of trust
Post-traumatic stress disorders