1.3 Critique of present state of research

The above outlined researches aim at finding out more about causes of homosexuality. Since neither essentialist nor constructivist approaches can sufficiently explain causes of homosexuality, it can be presumed that multi-factorial causes (social and biological ones) may be given. Notwithstanding alleged causes of homosexuality or design of researches, the basic question is why researchers are more interested in causes of homosexuality than in causes of heterosexuality: Exploring in particular homosexuality means to explore deviance. Thus, researchers’ motivation might range from scientific urge to the idea of finding treatment for an illness. Interpretation is what matters.
Compared with this, exploring “exuberance” of life means to explore numerous variations of biological and social life – and accepting its existence. Undoubtedly there are sexual variations which need to be socially controlled and sanctioned (incest and paedophilia). Consensual sex between non-kindred adults should be none of them. Further, since 1987 homosexuality is no longer regarded as a mental disorder (DSM), since 1991 for OMS.

Notwithstanding mentioned cultural and medical changes in Europe a reinvigoration of mainly religious motivated efforts to condemn homosexuality can be observed: conservative religious groups view homosexuality as endangering God’s creation, natural order, and promote “heterosexualization” programs for homosexuals. Some of them are based on the philosophy of American Christian sects like “Living Waters” (for example “Wüstenstrom” in Germany). Others are based on Islamic background and openly attack homosexuality and homosexuals, like “eating pork causes homosexuality” (Islamic community in St. Georg, Hamburg, Germany, June 2007). Even Catholic Church condemns homosexual partnerships as “evil” and “legalizing same-sex partnerships means to legalize the evil” (Philippika 2003). Catholic Church asks the state “to keep this phenomenon within limits” therewith not endangering public moral (Philippika 2003). 

As long as homosexuals are trapped between increasing sexual liberation and reinvigoration of conservatism, they are exposed to a high risk of pathologising homosexuality. Efforts to “heterosexualise” homosexuals cause psychological damage and can lead to low self-esteem, PTSD or even suicide. Homosexuality is no matter of choice and no disease. It is exuberance of life.
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European Commission and the German Federal Ministry of Family, Seniors, Women and Youth.

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